By W. Fred Ramirez
Lately, better oil restoration concepts have got a lot recognition within the oil undefined. more suitable oil restoration tools should be divided into 3 significant different types: thermal approaches which come with steam flooding, steam stimulation, and in-situ combustion; chemical strategies which come with surfactant-polymer injection, polymer flooding, and caustic flooding; and miscible displacement tactics which come with miscible hydrocarbon displacement, carbon dioxide injection of huge quantities of relatively dear fluids into oil bearing reservoir formations. advertisement program of any more suitable oil restoration procedure depends financial projections that express a good go back at the funding. due to excessive chemical bills, you will need to optimize stronger oil restoration procedures to supply the best restoration on the lowest chemical injection rate. the purpose of this e-book is to increase an optimum keep an eye on idea for the choice of working concepts that maximize the industrial reputation of improved oil restoration tactics. The choice of optimum keep watch over histories or working techniques is among the key parts within the profitable utilization of recent greater oil restoration thoughts. the knowledge inside the e-book will for that reason be either attention-grabbing and worthy to all these operating in petroleum engineering, petroleum administration and chemical engineering.
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Additional info for Application of Optimal Control Theory to Enhanced Oil Recovery
Haynes, H . I . , 1976. Enhanced Oil Recovery--An Analysis o f the Potential f o r Enhanced Oil Recovery Techniques from Known Fields in the United States--1976 to 2000, National Petroleum Council. Lake, L. W . , and P o p e , G . A . , 1979. "Status of Micellar/Polymer Field Tests," Pet. , 51, N o . 13, 38. Longman G r o u p Limited, 1984. 1984 Financial Times Oil and Gas International Year Book, Westgate House, England. Schumacher, M . M . , e d . , 1980. Enhanced Recovery o f Residual and Heavy Oils, Second Edition, Noyes Data Corporation, Park Ridge, New Jersey.
A > 0 and laSx,\ < E. 2-33) Since SJ is a linear functional of bx,, the scalar commutative property of Equation 2 . 2-36) -aSx, I I Such a variation is also shown in Figure 2 . 1 . Clearly Iaksx,I < E implies that II-abx,II < E . Therefore, the sign of the increment AJ(x*,-abx,) is the same as the sign of 6J(x*,-a6x1). 2-38) means that x * can not be an extremal since an extremal given i n Section 2 . 2 . 6 . T h e in X are not bounded guarantees that QSX, variations. 45 t Figure 2 . 1 . ,4n Extremal and T w o Specific Variations.
T h e advisability of using production estimates from an accurate numerical simulation of the micellar/polymer process is obvious. However, the following procedure is recommended f o r preliminary economic screening. 6 Since the pore volume i j 547,864 bbl per 40 acres then the incremental oil is. 9. 9. Oil Production for EOR Projects. 5 = = :E Q, b the maximum fractional oil cut tf - t,, the production time in years (1-52) 33 We will assume that enhanced oil production lasts f o r 2 pore volumes.
Application of Optimal Control Theory to Enhanced Oil Recovery by W. Fred Ramirez